Every day, employees make decisions about whether they are willing to go the extra mile in ways that contribute to their organization’s success.
These are important decisions because research shows that when employees are willing to go beyond their formal roles by helping out coworkers, volunteering to take on special assignments, introducing new ideas and work practices, attending non-mandatory meetings, putting in extra hours to complete important projects, and so forth, their companies are more efficient and effective.
As a result, a critical task for successful managers is to motivate their employees to engage in these extra-role behaviors, which researchers refer to as “citizenship behaviors.”
Although the benefits of citizenship behavior for organizational performance are clear, the implications for employees are more equivocal.
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